Thursday, January 18, 2018

Economics of Talent

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Vikram Bhalla, Susanne Dyrchs and Rainer Strack of the Boston Consulting Group predict a tsunami will hit work as we know it soon.
The projected tsunami takes the form of four megatrends – two affecting the demand for talent and two affecting the supply of talent. Thus, we are back to Economics 101 except that the megatrends will change the very nature of work in ways that are way beyond imagination.
The classic paradigm of management is about to undergo a sea change. Planning, Organizing, Leading, Performing, Recruiting, and Engaging employees will never be the same again. Organizations that are quick to adapt will flourish. Others will perish.
Two large clusters of waves will drive the demand for talent:
1.    Technological and digital productivity – this cluster has automation, big data, advanced analytics, and access to ideas and information as the configuration.
2.    Shifts in the manner of value creation – this cluster has the challenging task of simplifying complexity, agility and innovation, and new customer strategies (the Internet of Things, Design Thinking, and Placing Customers First) as the configuration.
Consider the following:
Automation – nearly half the jobs in the U.S. could be automated by 2050.
Example: A cognitive agent named Amelia can indeed perform several tasks such as customer service, order and procurement processing, and technology support.
Big Data and Analytics – 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are generated every day.
Example: An iPhone 7 has more processing power than what NASA had in 1969.
Access – by 2020 (that is right, just two years away), the world’s 7.6 billion people will use 11.6 billion mobile devices. Ideas may indeed travel faster than thought.
Example: Crowdsourcing companies such as InnoCentive allow companies to “rent” talent without significant investment. Thus, for every project, you can get the best talent with the assurance that the rented talent will deliver on time, within cost, and at great quality. Companies will face the challenge of managing the increasingly blurring distinction between employees and contractors.
Simplifying Complexity – 75% of leaders interviewed said that complexity was rendering their jobs much harder than they ever were. Yet only 17% said that simplification was possible. BCG’s Smart Simplicity helps organizations deal with complexity (I have written about this in an earlier blog).
Agility and Innovation – All the big ideas that have transformed manufacturing right from Kanban to agile to lean to design thinking are sweeping other domains off their feet.
Example: Bosch adopted these techniques to halve the cycle time for calibrating hardware and software.
New Customer Strategies – Boundaries between companies and customers are fading fast as customers gain access to more information and demanding. Customers want personalized offerings and are willing to collaborate with companies to achieve the objective. Customers want companies to go beyond value – they want companies to be socially and environmentally responsible.
Example: Proctor & Gamble has a million volunteers to obtain feedback on shelving and stocking of products.
Like the forces reshaping the demand for talent, two clusters will reshape the supply of talent.
1.    Shifts in resource distribution – a new demographic mix, skill imbalances, and shifting geopolitical and economic power.
2.    Changing workforce values and cultures – diversity and inclusion, individualism and entrepreneurship, and well-being and purpose.
Consider the following:
A New Demographic Mix – The global population is aging. By 2035, one in five people will be 65 or older. BCG projects a global workforce crisis within the next 15 years, with a labor deficit in most of the 15 largest economies, including in three of the BRIC nations. Since the 15 economies constitute 70% of global GDP, the crisis is likely to affect practically every multinational company. Meanwhile, Generation Z digital natives entering the workforce have entirely new expectations, an increasing emphasis on work-life balance, and are much harder to retain. These demographic shifts will place enormous pressure on companies and their ability to attract, hire, train, and retain talent. A key aspect of the pressure will be to motivate older employees to transfer their tacit knowledge to their younger colleagues. Knowledge Management will occupy center-stage in organizations.
Skill Imbalances – A BCG survey indicates that nearly half of US and German companies cite the lack of qualified employees as the biggest constraint for growth. A Gartner study provides the gloomy forecast that a third of technology jobs will go unfilled by 2020. In desperation, some colleges are offering majors that did not exist just five years ago! For many companies, incubating talent internally will be more critical than depending on the market.
Shifting Geopolitical and Economic Power – Talent is more mobile than ever before, yet challenges remain. In technology, for example, talent is concentrated in 60 hot spots. Rising protectionism and anti-immigration sentiment are rendering mobility more and more difficult. Income disparity is increasing. The top 1% today owns half the wealth. This inequality is projected to increase further in the next decade. There is a real danger of the poor being left further behind leading to unpredictable consequences.
Changing Workforce Cultures and Values – There is a growing preference for independent work instead of corporate careers. People are likely to work for multiple companies – and companies may be quite helpless to do anything about it. Diversity and inclusion are no longer “nice to have” attributes but are dire necessities. Independence is fast becoming the primary motivator, particularly among younger people. One study starkly predicts that freelancers will constitute half the workforce by 2020. As organizations start to rent rather than hire talent, they will have to make do with lower levels of commitment. Leaders will need new styles – styles that encourage entrepreneurship and inspire individuals as much as teams. Millennials and Gen-Zers want more from their jobs than mere competitive compensation. 62% of millennials say they want careers that have a social impact, and 53% say they will work harder to achieve that impact. Companies like Sony now have social work as part of their internship. One in five employees say that they would willingly give up 5% of their pay for the freedom of working from home one or two days a week. Companies will have to devise new ways to attract talent by offering a package that goes well beyond compensation and benefits. Organizations will be judged not just by what they make but by who they are – in relation to customers, employees, suppliers, and society.
The new age of work that frantically tries to balance the supply and demand for talent requires organizations to change in ways that are hard to imagine:
1.    The role of the organization is likely to shift from a controller of resources to a facilitator of ecosystems and a conduit for realizing individual aspirations.
2.    Speed and agility will be central to competitiveness. Companies that look for the “perfect” offering will fall by the wayside. Companies that are willing to experiment, develop rapid prototypes, and “sprint” cycles will succeed.
3.    Companies will emphasize on developing and re-developing people. HR policies and programs will give way to problem-solving interactions, with functions and departments losing their pre-eminence.
4.    Investments in digital technologies and training people to harness technology rather than being scared by its impact will be the new mantra for success.
Finally, organizations will find the need to constantly re-invent themselves and to fearlessly adapt to the changing environment. The status-quo will no longer be an option.
In addition, organizations will need to define themselves not in terms of a value proposition or a competitive position, but in terms of a purpose that makes them relevant in a rapidly changing world.
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Monday, January 15, 2018

The Symphonic Enterprise

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A renowned music conductor once said that an orchestra full of stars can be a disaster. There is no reason to believe that the maestro was speaking metaphorically. His observation suggests something universal: Without unity and harmony, discord prevails.
Many organizations that are being turned upside down by technology innovation are no strangers to discord. Digital reality, cognitive capability, and blockchain are redefining IT, business, and society in general. Organizations typically responded to such disruptive opportunities by launching transformation initiatives within technology domains. Domain specific cloud, analytics, and big data projects represented bold, even if single minded embraces of the future. C-suite positions such as “Chief Digital Officer” or “Chief Analytics Officer” reinforced the primacy of domain thinking.

It must be obvious that treating some systems as independent domains is suboptimal at best. Complex predictive analytics capabilities delivered little or no value without big data. Big data was expensive and ineffective without the cloud. Everything required mobile capabilities. After a decade of domain specific transformation, one question remains: How can disruptive technologies work together to achieve larger strategic and operational goals?

We are now seeing some forward-thinking organizations approach change more broadly. They are not repeating the mistakes of the past by launching separate, domain specific initiatives. Instead, they are thinking about exploration, use cases, and holistic deployment, focusing on how disruptive technologies can complement each other to drive greater value. Blockchain can serve as a new foundational protocol for trust throughout the enterprise and beyond. Digital reality breaks down geographic barriers between people, and systemic barriers between humans and data. These technologies together can fundamentally reshape how work gets done, or set the stage for new products and business models.

It is time to think of organizations as symphonic enterprises, an idea that describes strategy, technology, and operations working together. Already, the earlier trends such as the digital cloud and analytics are now embraced across industries. More recent trends such as autonomous platforms, machine intelligence, and digital reality, continue to gain momentum.

It is time to look at emerging technology trends from a different angle. When technologies act in unison, we no longer see the enterprise vertically (focused on line of business or isolated industries) or horizontally (focused on business processes or enabling technologies). In the symphonic enterprise, the old lines become blurred, thus creating a diagonal that illuminates new business opportunities and creative ways of solving problems. For example, in the near future, digitized finance and supply chain organizations could blur the lines between the two functions. Consider the following scenario:

IOT sensors on the factory floor generate data that supply chain managers use to optimize shipping and inventory processes. When supply chain operations become more efficient and predictable, finance can perform more accurate forecasting and planning. In turn, this allows dynamic pricing or adjustments to cash positions based on real-time visibility of operations. Indeed, the two functions begin sharing investments in next-generation ERP, the Internet of Things, machine learning, and RPA. Together, finance and supply chain functions shift from projects to platforms, which expands the potential frame of impact. Meanwhile, business leaders and the C-suite are increasingly interested only in strategy and outcomes, not the individual technologies that drive them. Does the convergence of finance and supply chain really seem so unlikely?

Some domain specific approaches remain valuable. Core assets still underpin the IT ecosystem. Cyber and risk protocols are as critical as ever. CIO strategies for “running the business of IT” are valuable and timeless. Yet, we should also recognize a larger trend at work, one that emphasizes the unified “orchestra” over individual advances in technology.

We hope technology can help you begin building a symphonic enterprise of your own.

The music is bound to be beautiful and timeless.
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Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Challenges in Organizational Culture

Culture and organizational performance are inter-related. Organizations that espouse a positive culture on a foundation of shared values have a competitive advantage. Research also shows that people who find their need for meaning and purpose as being met at work exhibit higher levels of performance and expend higher levels of discretionary effort. Culture is also a powerful driver of engagement, which has been linked to better financial performance.

How confident can leaders be that their efforts to disseminating organizational culture are reaching all their people?
The twin challenges in creating purpose and connections across the entire human capital arise out of two new developments:
1.    Technology allows more and more people to work remotely, physically removing a portion of the workforce from the corporate or local campuses where people used to congregate.
2.    Contingent or “off-balance-sheet” workers are making up a growing portion of the workers – and these employees may not necessarily feel the same investment in an employer’s mission and goals that a traditional employee might.
The astonishing fact that emerges out of research is that 95% of new employment in the United States between 2005 and 2015 consisted of alternative work arrangements. An INTUIT report suggests that nearly 40% of all US employees will be engaged in some sort of alternative work arrangement by 2020. A 2015 GALLUP poll revealed that the number of employees working off-campus has grown nearly four-fold since 1995, with one in four employees noting that they mostly telecommute.
Thus, we have the reality of the distributed and contingent workforce. Employers face the growing challenge of fostering a shared culture that encompasses all employees, on or off campus, on or off the balance sheet. A consistent culture becomes a great challenge. How can leaders develop a nuanced strategy to extend organizational culture to alternative types of employees?
We can segment the entire workforce of an organization along two axes: on vs. off campus; and contract type – on vs. off balance sheet. It is important to recognize that the two axes are not static. Rather, they are fluid to the extent that employees can move from one category to another. The fluidity poses additional challenges for leadership in crafting an appropriate culture. “Hybrid” employees who may alternate between on-campus work and remote locations have some advantages of the on-campus employee, while also facing the challenges of the remote employee.
The alternative workforce goes to work

The traditional worker. Perhaps the most familiar, the traditional employee works on-campus, in a full-time or fixed part-time arrangement. Given a shared location and regular in-person interactions, social norms and behaviors are generally highly observable among traditional workers, making this setting the most efficient at transmitting culture. But these benefits come at a cost: the overhead involved in maintaining a physical location or multiple locations, as well as the risk of cultural stagnation. Also, if norms are well entrenched, an on-campus setting has the potential to create a static or homogeneous culture that can be difficult to change—an ability that may be crucial as companies increasingly demand nimble and dynamic environments to remain competitive. The risk is that groupthink may arise, leading workers to conform to old ways of acting and thinking rather than challenging the status quo.15 In addition, traditional workers in satellite locations may feel isolated from headquarters, which can foster resentment or a sense of being “second-class citizens.”
The tenured remote worker. Off-campus but on-balance sheet workers are commonly referred to as teleworkers, but they may also include traveling salespeople, remote customer service workers, and those in other jobs that do not require on-campus accommodations. These workers have the flexibility of location, but are at a disadvantage when it comes to actually observing social norms as well as experiencing in-person collaboration. Research suggests that remote employees often have less trust in each other’s work and capabilities due to a lack of interpersonal communication.16 In addition, remote workers may feel isolated and separated from the company’s headquarters. However, companies still have some traditional levers to pull to engage the tenured remote worker, such as benefits and formal career progression opportunities. 
The transactional remote worker. This type of worker is not only off-balance-sheet, but also off-campus. Often, they are paid to deliver very specific services. Many of these individuals operate on flexible schedules and in customer-facing roles.17 Their relationship with the hiring organization can be marked by low-quality touchpoints and facilitated through technology-based platforms or a third-party agency. The transactional remote worker may also experience a strong sense of instability, which may result in added anxiety.18
The outside contractor. On-campus but off-balance-sheet, contract or consulting workers often bring an inherent outsider mentality and an array of previous cultural experiences. They are often brought in to help facilitate a shorter-term or finite project and may be viewed—or may view themselves—as not being subject to the organization’s cultural norms and values. These workers usually do not receive the typical onboarding and new hire training opportunities that can help build a sense of culture among on-balance sheet employees. Given that these individuals work on campus and can observe the organization’s norms firsthand, however, there may be more opportunities to make them feel like part of the culture.
Creating a shared cultural experience across a segmented workforce
Creating a consistent culture across these four unique talent segments requires strategic grounding, as a positive organizational culture is not likely to thrive without focus, intention, and action. While culture may often be viewed as an intangible asset, and even as an emotional or personal aspect of business, using a strategic framework can help bring culture to the forefront of leadership decision making.

Just as broader organizational strategy must be crafted deliberately, culture must also be intentionally shaped to make workers feel valued and perform well. Asking a series of questions specifically focused on managing culture can help to guide organizations as they work to sustain and extend their mission amid the growth of alternative work arrangements. Based on the strategic choice cascade—a well-developed framework that is often used to help make intentional decisions about an organization’s strategy—this approach applies similar principles in thinking about how to sustain culture across all four workforce personas (figure 2).
What is our culture and purpose?
To leverage culture as an asset to organizational performance, organizations must first have a clearly articulated culture—one whose norms and values support the advancement of the organization’s purpose and mission. This may seem self-evident, but just 23 percent of the respondents to the 2017 Deloitte Global Human Capital Trends survey believe that their employees are fully aligned with their corporate purpose. This is an alarming disconnect, with research suggesting that purpose misalignment is a major underlying cause of the rampant disengagement facing many organizations today.
A strong corporate purpose—however one defines it—can yield dividends, not just for workforce engagement and productivity, but for the brand and company growth as well. Patagonia, the global outdoor clothing manufacturer, cultivates a positive organizational culture by fostering a sense of commitment, shared beliefs, collective focus, and inclusion. For years, the company has been known for its high-end outdoor clothing and bright-colored fleece jackets. Beyond its products, however, the company also emphasizes environmental sustainability. Sometimes known as “the activist company,” Patagonia’s mission statement reads, “Build the best product, cause no unnecessary harm, use business to inspire and implement solutions to the environmental crisis,” and the company infuses this approach into its work environment.
Patagonia’s leadership has implemented and reinforced a culture that motivates employees of all types to play an active role in environment sustainability and live by its mission statement. Employees around the world are given opportunities to participate in programs and initiatives that support the environment; the company donates either 1 percent of total sales or 10 percent of pre-tax profits (whichever is greater) to grassroots environmental groups; and the company takes steps to ensure that the materials and processes used to manufacture their products are environmentally friendly. Through activities like these, Patagonia leaders strive to build an emotional attachment to the company’s mission across its employee base.
How do we improve cultural fit?
As organizations continue to leverage alternative workers more and more, it will become increasingly important to obtain consistent, high-quality work products from this talent segment. To reduce onboarding, training time, and costs, companies may opt to create a consistent group of alternative employees who work regularly with the organization. Workers who are naturally a good fit for an organization’s culture get along well with the other employees, have a positive experience during their time with the organization, and experience the sense of belonging that can fuel discretionary effort. Therefore, an important step is to screen alternative workers, particularly the transactional remote employees—individuals whose employment relationship was long considered purely transactional—for cultural fit before hiring them. Employers can leverage an array of digital technologies, including video interviews, online value assessments, and even peer-rated feedback, to determine fit throughout the hiring process. Particularly in contexts where teaming and collaboration are important, screening contingent workers for fit during the recruiting process is the first line of defense against diluting an organization’s culture.
TaskRabbit, an online marketplace that matches freelance labor with demand for minor home repairs, errand running, moving and packing, and more, understands the value of assessing potential workers—or “taskers,” as they call them—for cultural fit. After seeing early missteps by peers in the gig economy who did not accurately screen or ensure quality of work, TaskRabbit started an early process during the recruiting phase to heavily screen all potential taskers. Now, each tasker goes through a vetting process, which includes writing an essay, submitting a video Q&A, passing a background check, and completing an interview.  Additionally, each tasker is reviewed by customers who book his or her services via TaskRabbit’s platform. That feedback helps TaskRabbit ensure that its taskers are demonstrating the company’s desired culture. “The marketplace is all about transparency and performance. You have people out there providing your product that aren’t your employees,” says TaskRabbit CEO Stacy Brown-Philpot. “But you still have to put out there what your values are.” Organizations can use a screening process like TaskRabbit’s, not just for their contingent workers, but for their traditional and full-time remote employees as well.
How do we create a consistent employee experience among our unique segments?
While cultivating a shared organizational culture is important, it is also important not to assume that a one-size-fits-all strategy for shaping the cultural experience across the organization will be effective. This is where the segmentation depicted in figure 1 comes into play. Your organization may depend on a variety of worker arrangements to achieve its business goals; ensuring that your culture is experienced and reinforced consistently across all worker types, albeit through different mechanisms, is key. Indeed, each worker segment is likely to experience the organizational culture from a different perspective. Developing a strong organizational culture can ensure that each segment is valued for their contributions toward a shared goal. Here are some recommendations on how to approach each segment:
  • Traditional workers. Physical spaces can certainly be the most expensive to maintain, but they can also be the most effective in helping to shape an organization’s desired culture. Consider how your organization’s space is designed and what that signals to your traditional workers. Leverage the physical space to reinforce a commitment to your purpose. One financial services firm, seeking to create a culture that emphasized a strong commitment to relationships with advisors and employees, sought to redefine the company’s culture by starting with some low-hanging fruit. Initial activities included dedicating a wall to employee pictures, renaming conference rooms, and reconfiguring office spaces. Over time, town halls were moved from a formal meeting space to an open floor space where employees could easily mingle with senior leaders afterward. Senior leader parking spaces were removed to signify that all workers’ efforts were important to the company’s success. Cubicles were reorganized into team pods to encourage cross-functional collaboration. In addition, the company began a quarterly human-centric award that publicly recognized employees who demonstrated the company’s core values. Utilizing the physical space to create intentional employee experiences helped to reshape the company’s culture around its purpose.
  • Tenured remote workers. Make working remotely as simple as possible for this employee segment. Invest in technologies that support digital collaboration and make working and connecting from off-campus easy. As feelings of being excluded from the goings-on can sometimes plague remote workers, take care to include tenured remote workers when scheduling ad hoc meetings where their involvement would be valuable. In addition, consider creating opportunities for these workers to interact in person with other employees—for instance, through annual retreats or local lunches—to encourage trust and team-building. Lastly, this can be an easy group to overlook when it comes to recognition and acknowledgment of milestones. Openly reward and acknowledge tenured remote workers’ efforts using venues such as company-wide town halls or newsletters. For example, the financial firm discussed above relied heavily on tenured remote employees to fulfill its customer service requests. In an effort to extend the culture beyond the organization’s physical walls, leaders highlighted one remote employee’s exceptional customer service through the company-wide newsletter. This relatively small act of recognition went a long way in helping to reduce turnover within this segment of its employee population.
  • Transactional remote workers. Take the time to understand what these workers are hoping to gain from their temporary assignment, and use this understanding of their needs to build their commitment to your company and its culture. In many cases, transactional remote workers are foregoing traditional worker benefits in exchange for greater freedom and flexibility. Don’t micromanage, but rather, acknowledge their ability to be autonomous and make it clear that you support their flexible work arrangements. In addition, because transactional remote workers aren’t around all the time, Daniel Pink, author of Drive, recommends “spending extra time talking about what the goal is, how it connects to the big picture, and why it matters.”27 Understanding their reasons for accepting the assignment and providing greater context for how their work fits into the larger picture can help leaders better transmit their organization’s culture to the transactional remote worker.
  • The outside contractor. Because this segment of the alternative work population works within your campus, their physical presence can be leveraged to communicate culture through means such as inviting them to all-company meetings and encouraging their participation in lunches or after-work activities. A recent Harvard Business Review article also provides this advice when working with the outsider employee segment: “Try to avoid all the subtle status differentiators that can make contractors feel like second-class citizens—for example, the color of their ID badges or access to the corporate gym—and be exceedingly inclusive instead. Invite them to important meetings, bring them into water-cooler conversations, and add them to the team email list.” Stated simply, don’t overlook these employees working right in front of you and err on the side of greater inclusion in communications, meetings, and company-wide events.

What capabilities and reinforcing mechanisms do we need to extend our culture?
Leaders should identify both the organizational capabilities and the tools and mechanisms required to help reinforce the desired culture through operations (for example, speed, service, delivery, tools). All aspects of operations should support the desired organizational culture. For instance, if leaders want the culture to encourage continuous learning, they can put in place easily accessible training to upskill employees or reinforce key capabilities or skill sets. Additionally, rewards will come into play as a key reinforcing mechanism; after all, the activities you reward are the ones that employees focus on, so use rewards to reinforce the behaviors that are important to your organization.
Airbnb, a home-sharing platform through which travelers can rent a room or an entire home, reinforces culture through a variety of mechanisms. In addition to up-front screening mechanisms of potential hosts, the Airbnb application includes questions about hospitality standards and asks for a commitment to core values that hosts have to agree to support. Airbnb reinforces these values in several ways. First, it has a Superhost program to reward hosts who exemplify Airbnb’s culture. These Superhosts, who now number in the tens of thousands, can earn revenue in the five- to six-figure range; the Superhost designation helps to propel their rentals, creating an incentive that hosts strive to attain. Superhosts also receive a literal badge of honor for their profiles. Airbnb evaluates hosts based on nine criteria, from tactical factors around reliability and cleanliness to the host’s experience, communications with guests, and a number of five-star reviews. These evaluations also help align hosts with Airbnb’s values and purpose. Additionally, Airbnb holds host meetups for knowledge-sharing and community buildin31 For example, in fall 2014, it hosted an Airbnb Open, a conference to “inspire hosts and teach them about making guests feel at home.” The conference ended with a day of community service to reinforce core value. Tactics such as these—from “challenges” like the Superhost program to meetups and events—can be used to reinforce cultural norms and reenergize workers around your purpose.

What digital technologies or other tools do we need to extend our culture?
Digital technologies offer an array of tools that can enable leaders to share up-to-the-minute information, get instant feedback, and analyze data in real time. Leaders can and should leverage these tools not only to drive collaboration and connectivity, but also to understand the employee experience and its evolution. But don’t limit yourself to just the digital tools. Third-party co-working spaces—such as WeWork, Regus, Spaces (which Regus operates), RocketSpace, LiquidSpace, and a host of city-specific others—can be used to create communities and meeting places where virtual workers, whether on or off the balance sheet, can connect live. An influx of large companies are renting these co-working spaces for employees to create connection points and appeal to a different type of worker.  

As its Menlo Park headquarters grows and its use of other locations and virtual work expands, Facebook is finding ways to effectively use technology to extend its campus culture. The company regularly pulses employees to gather data on their perspectives on culture and engagement. It also has implemented its own product, the collaboration platform Workplace by Facebook, to enable “two-way communication for all of us, CEO to intern, no matter where you are. It connects us, and supports our culture, across the company and around the world,” according to Facebook executive Monica Adractas. (For more information, see sidebar, “Sustaining culture: Facebook’s approach.”)

Next steps
Leaders intent on extending their organizational cultures past office walls and balance sheets can consider the following steps:

Identify your alternative workforce populations with data. Take an inventory to understand where, precisely, your employees lay within these four populations, to understand how much you need to prioritize thinking about a shared culture and where to focus. Utilize data analytics to determine the percentage of workers in each segment as well as forecast future alternative workforce opportunities. Then review your strategies for how these populations may evolve in the future to ensure your strategy for maintaining a consistent culture remains relevant.

Utilize the choice cascade to intentionally create a positive culture across workforce segments. Creating consistent cultural experiences requires an intentional strategy for engaging all worker segments. Just as marketers seek to engage customers under a shared brand experience, albeit through different mechanisms, employers likewise can use the choice cascade to create positive worker experiences under a shared employer brand.

Empower leaders to create a positive organizational culture. Commit to supporting the organization’s culture across all levels of leadership. Sustaining a positive culture typically requires great commitment and efforts across all levels. Empower leaders and managers to help workers feel valued and part of a larger effort toward making a difference. This can fuel all employees’ sense of meaning and purpose, regardless of employment type.
An organization’s culture can help boost its performance—but to deliver its full potential, culture should extend to all types of workers, not just traditional employees. Given the current and anticipated growth in the off-balance-sheet workforce and in the number of individuals working off-campus, leaders should think about how they can include these workers in their efforts to create and sustain a positive organizational culture. Business leaders who are prepared to directly address this imperative will likely have more success in maintaining a culture that enables their strategy.

(Adapted from DELOITTE INSIGHTS, Deloitte University Press, January 2018)